Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

29 results found
Article

Chest (AP erect view)

The erect anteroposterior chest view is performed with the x-ray tube anteriorly, firing photons through the patient to form the image on a detector positioned behind the patient. A detector can be positioned behind a relatively immobile patient.  Indications The erect anteroposterior chest vi...
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Chest (AP lordotic view)

The AP lordotic chest radiograph (or AP axial chest radiograph) demonstrates areas of the lung apices that appear obscured on the PA/AP chest radiographic views. Indication The AP lordotic projection is often used to evaluate suspicious areas within the lung apices that appeared obscured by ov...
Article

Chest (expiratory view)

An expiratory chest radiograph can be taken in either a PA or AP projection, and can also be taken with a mobile/portable unit.  Chest radiographs may inadvertently be acquired in expiration (instead of inspiration), and this will affect interpretation with the cardiac silhouette appearing enla...
Article

Chest (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus view of the chest is a specialized projection that is now rarely used due to the ubiquity of CT.  It is chiefly used in the pediatric population. Indication Undertaken to demonstrate small pleural effusions, or for the investigation of pneumothorax and air trapping due to...
Article

Chest (lateral view)

The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Indications This orthogonal view to a frontal chest radiograph may be performed as an adjunct in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. The lateral chest view can be particularly useful in as...
Article

Chest (PA view)

The posteroanterior (PA) chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. Indications The chest x-ray is the most common radiological investigation in the emergency department 1. The PA view is frequently used to aid in diagnosing a range of acute and chronic...
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Chest photofluorography

Chest photofluorography, also known as mass miniature radiography, is a form of diagnostic imaging known as fluorography, applied to the thorax. Historically it was used for mass screening for pulmonary tuberculosis. The imaging technique consists of recording a miniature photograph of the scre...
Article

Chest protocol (CT non contrast)

The CT chest (non-contrast) protocol serves as an outline for the acquisition of a chest CT without the use of an intravenous contrast medium. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a CT protocol for the assessment of the chest. Protocol specifics will vary depending on CT scanne...
Article

Chest radiograph

The chest radiograph (also known as the chest x-ray or CXR) is anecdotally thought to be the most frequently-performed radiological investigation globally although no published data is known to corroborate this. UK government statistical data from the NHS in England and Wales shows that the ches...
Article

Chest (supine view)

The supine anteroposterior chest view is the alternative to the PA view and the AP erect view when the patient is generally too unwell to tolerate standing, leaving the bed, or sitting 1. The supine view is of lesser quality than both the AP erect and the PA view for many reasons, yet sometimes ...
Article

Contrast-enhanced CT during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Contrast-enhanced CT of patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) presents unique technical and diagnostic challenges. Technical considerations  There are a number of factors that need to be considered to ensure contrast-enhanced CT studies of ECMO patients are both succes...
Article

CT polytrauma (technique)

CT polytrauma/multitrauma, also called trauma CT, whole body CT (WBCT) or panscan, is an increasingly used investigation in patients with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma. Clinical assessment and mechanism of injury may underestimate injury severity by 30% 8. There is some e...
Article

CT pulmonary angiogram (technique)

The computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA/CTPE) is a commonly performed diagnostic examination to exclude pulmonary emboli. Each radiology department will have a slightly different method for achieving the same outcome, i.e. adequate enhancement of the pulmonary trunk and its branches.  ...
Article

En face

En face (pronounced /ɒ̃ ˈfas/) is a term used in radiology, mainly in plain radiography, to refer to structures or pathology that are seen front on.
Article

F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) embolism

F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) embolism is a condition which results in a uniform intense FDG-avid pulmonary focus without any underlying structural CT correlate with an unremarkable follow-up PET-CT scan 1. It is thought to occur as a result of clumping of FDG with blood when the blood is withdr...
Article

Foreign body inhalation series (pediatric)

The suspected foreign body inhalation series although not a primary port of investigation aims to detect and identify both foreign bodies or the secondary signs of inhaled foreign bodies 1. It involves a frontal chest radiograph in both the inspiration and expiratory phases and, in some cases, b...
Article

Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiographs Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels ...
Article

Ribs (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique rib projection is performed to best demonstrate the axillary ribs. Oblique ribs may be conducted either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique view. Indications The AP oblique view specifically focuses on the axillary ribs. The rib series is often considered to be an unnece...
Article

Ribs (AP view)

The ribs AP view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the posterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. It often involves two projections, one of the supradiaphragmatic ribs and two of ...
Article

Ribs (PA view)

The ribs PA view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the anterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. Indications The PA view specifically focuses on the anterior ribs. The rib series...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (anterior oblique views)

The anterior oblique projections of the sternoclavicular joints are complimentary to the front on PA view in the sternoclavicular joint series The side of obliquity pertains to the joint of interest i.e. RAO to assess the right sternoclavicular joint. However, this projection is often performed...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (PA view)

The sternoclavicular PA view is part of the plain radiographic series assessing the sternoclavicular joint. The projection produces a bilateral view of the sternoclavicular joints in the posteroanterior plane. Indications  The PA view of the sternoclavicular joint is often requested in the con...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (serendipity view)

The serendipity view is a specialized radiographic projection utilized in the setting of suspect dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint. The projection is seldom used in departments with functioning computed tomography, but still utilized in postoperative imaging. Indications The serendipi...
Article

Sternum (lateral view)

The lateral sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire length of the sternum in profile. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Indication This view is invariably undertaken for one of two reasons, to assess for a fracture or metastasis.  It may also rarely be perform...
Article

Sternum (oblique view)

The oblique sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire sternum often complimenting the lateral sternum projection.  Indications The oblique view will show the sternal body in the AP plane, it is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position the patient is RAO facing t...
Article

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation planning (CT protocol)

The transcatheter aortic valve implantation or TAVI planning CT protocol is used to plan for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. CT allows for the assessment of the aortic root and valve annulus in order to select an appropriate valve size and location-specific to the patient. An aortic ang...
Article

Triple-rule-out CT

Triple-rule-out CT (TRO CT) angiography may be ordered in the setting of acute chest pain to examine the thoracic aorta and the coronary and pulmonary arteries. The protocol helps exclude life-threatening causes of acute chest pain, especially if atypical, or if alternative causes to acute coron...
Article

V/Q scan

V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) scan is a scintigraphic examination of the lung that evaluates pulmonary vasculature perfusion and segmental bronchoalveolar tree ventilation. Indications diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism monitor pulmonary function following lung transplant provide preope...
Article

Xenon-127

Xenon-127 is a radiopharmaceutical principally used when a performing VQ scan. It is not a widely used alternative to xenon-133 with the main advantage being a higher proton energy allowing for post perfusion scanning.  photon energy: 203 KeV physical half life: 36.3 days

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