The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) injury scoring scales are the most widely accepted and used system of classifying and categorizing traumatic injuries. Injury grade reflects severity, guides management, and aids in prognosis. Currently (early 2019), 32 different injury s...
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are:
ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)
non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
Anectasis is a term that describes primary atelectasis, as distinct from secondary atelectasis.
Anectasis refers to the failure of the lung to expand fully at birth.
The Boyden classification of bronchi refers to the standard nomenclature used to describe bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy.
Each lung has 10 segments, however, on the left, the first two segments share a common trunk and are hence B1/2. Also given the shared trunk on the left of the lower lob...
The Brasfield scoring system is a scoring system for patients with cystic fibrosis. The score is based on conventional chest radiographic findings and has been reported to have good correlation with pulmonary function. There can be intra- and interobserver variability between radiologists.
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a subtype of pulmonary edema where the underlying etiology is due to left ventricular dysfunction.
left heart failure
congestive cardiac failure
The Chrispin-Norman score is used to provide a summative assessment of structural lung changes in patients with cystic fibrosis on plain chest radiographs.
It is useful to monitor disease progression or treatment response and can be used to compare between different patients in research studies...
Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) refers to a group of conditions which includes:
primary ciliary dyskinesia
This term is usually used in the context of pediatric patients.
Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn.
In a large study in the U...
Coronary Artery Calcium Data and Reporting System (CAC-DRS) is a structured reporting scheme for all non-contrast CT scans in the evaluation of coronary artery disease, which can help in communication between clinicians and radiologists. These guidelines have been recommended by the Society of C...
A number of entities can present as cyanotic congenital heart disease. These can be divided into those with increased (pulmonary plethora) or decreased pulmonary vascularity:
increased pulmonary vascularity
total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (types I and II)
transposition of the ...
The DeBakey classification, along with the Stanford classification, is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management.
Both the Stanford and DeBakey systems can be used to describe all forms of acute aortic syndro...
As a part of international evidence-based guidelines adopted by a collaborative effort of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS), and the Latin American Thoracic Association (ALAT), specific diagnostic HRCT criteria for...
British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for pulmonary nodules1 recommend the application of the Herder risk model in predicting malignancy in pulmonary nodules.
The Herder model 2 predicts the risk of malignancy in solid pulmonary nodules using patient characteristics, nodules characteristics...
Hereditary connective tissue diseases are an enlarging group of connective tissue diseases that have a degree of inheritance risk. They include:
Marfan syndrome: genetic disease causing abnormal fibrillin
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: progressive deterioration of collagen and affects joints, heart ...
CT scoring systems have been proposed in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to predict clinical outcomes. This scoring system was established by Ichikado et al. in 2006 2 and at the time of writing (July 2016), this is the most widely used CT scoring system.
Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image' and refers to finding normally-asymmetric bilateral structures to be similar. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types:
Mirror image of the structures on the left side o...
The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 8th edition lung cancer staging system was introduced in 2016 and supersedes the IASLC 7th edition.
Standard-of-care lung cancer staging ideally should be performed in a multidisciplinary meeting using the information provided ...
Lung-RADSTM (or lung imaging reporting and data system) is a classification proposed to aid with findings in low-dose CT screening exams for lung cancer. The goal of the classification system is to standardize follow-up and management decisions. The system is similar to the Fleischner criteria b...
Macrocystic honeycombing refers to a morphological subtype of honeycombing. Many publications consider the individual lung cysts to be greater than 4 mm in diameter to be classified into this category. This form is considered to be more commonly associated with UIP 3.
Mediastinal masses may be caused by a wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathologies. It is helpful to identify the location of the mass since this significantly reduces the breadth of the differential diagnosis.
There are four conceptual compartments of the mediastinum which are di...
The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) classification of mediastinal compartments was developed to reflect a division of the mediastinum based on cross-sectional imaging. It was in part an effort to consolidate prior discrepant classification systems in use by different medic...
The modified PIOPED II criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus indicate the presence or absence of pulmonary emboli based on findings on V/Q scan (ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy). The following article reflects the modified interpretation criteria promulgated in 2008 1 based on recat...
Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is the second most common morphological and pathological pattern of interstitial lung diseases. NSIP has two main subtypes:
fibrotic type: most common, having a more dismal outcome
cellular type: less common, but carries a much better prognosis due to...
Esophageal atresia is closely related to tracheo-esophageal fistula and can be divided into1:
type A: isolated esophageal atresia (8%)
type B: proximal fistula with distal atresia (1%)
type C: proximal atresia with distal fistula (85%)
type D: double fistula with intervening atresia (1%)
Pediatric mediastinal masses are the most common chest masses in children, with the anterior mediastinum being the most common site 1.
As in adults, mediastinal masses are classified depending on anatomical sites:
anterior mediastinal masses
middle mediastinal masses
posterior mediastinal ma...
The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) is a means of grading the severity of penetration or aspiration observed in a videofluoroscopic swallow study and is widely used 2.
The term aspiration is used for material that passes inferior to the level of the vocal folds. If material enters the larynx...
The PISAPED criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus indicate the presence or absence of pulmonary emboli based on findings on perfusion scintigraphy (only the Q portion of the V/Q scan) in combination with chest radiography. The criteria were validated in the Prospective Investigative St...
Preinvasive lesions for lung adenocarcinoma are a category of small non-invasive lung lesions which are closely related to adenocarcinoma of the lung. They may represent a spectrum of premalignant to low-grade malignant lesions.
The category includes two types of lesions:
atypical adenomatous ...
A pulmonary arterial stenosis can be classified into several types 1,2:
type I: involving main pulmonary artery
type II: involving bifurcation
type III: multiple peripheral stenoses
type IV: central and peripheral stenoses
congenital pulmonary stenosis
There are numerous causes of pulmonary hypertension, and thus not surprisingly there have been many classification systems.
In 2003, the 3rd World Symposium on PAH met in Venice and produced an updated classification system (this has been further revised in the Dana Point classification of pulm...
The classification system for pulmonary hypertension was revised at the 4th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension held in Dana Point, California, in 2008 1.
This system is as follows:
group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension
1.1: idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension
1.2: heritable ...
In 2013, the 5th World Symposium on pulmonary hypertension took place in Nice, France and modified the classification system for pulmonary hypertension.
The modified system divides pulmonary hypertension into five groups:
group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension (disorders of the pulmonary ar...
Pulmonary nodules are small, rounded opacities within the pulmonary interstitium. Pulmonary nodules are common and, as the spatial resolution of CT scanners has increased, detection of smaller and smaller nodules has occurred, which are more often an incidental finding.
One pulmonary edema grading based on chest radiograph appearances and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is as follows:
grade 0: normal chest radiograph, PCWP 8-12 mmHg
grade 1: shows evidence of upper lobe diversion on a chest radiograph, PCWP 13-18 mmHg
grade 2: shows interstitial ed...
RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.
As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Situs classification (plural: sitūs) or body situs can be a daunting topic, but it falls into three main groups:
situs solitus: the normal configuration of thoracic and abdominal organs
situs inversus: mirror image of the normal configuration
situs ambiguus (heterotaxy): an intermediate confi...
Situs solitus (rare plural: sitūs soliti) refers to the normal position of the thoracic and abdominal organs. This will include a left-sided heart, also known as levocardia.
On plain radiograph, careful attention should be directed at the location of the...
The Stanford classification, along with the DeBakey classification, is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management 7.
Both the Stanford and DeBakey systems can be used to describe all forms of acute aortic synd...
Thoracic sarcoidosis can be staged on a chest radiograph with implications for prognosis although HRCT and FDG-PET provide more information to help guide treatment.
Chest radiographs have been the mainstay of staging thoracic sarcoidosis for many decades with fair interobserver concord...
The WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumors is one of many classifications systems for thymoma and related tumors, and classifies them according to histology:
spindle cell thymoma
type ab: mixed thymoma
type b1: lymphocyte rich