Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

429 results found
Article

2001 WHO classification of hepatic hydatid cysts

The 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hepatic hydatid cysts is used to assess the stage of hepatic hydatid cyst on ultrasound and is useful in deciding the appropriate management for it depending on the stage of the cyst. This classification was proposed by the WHO in 2001 a...
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2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumors

The 2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumors lays out a classification system for neoplasms and other tumors related to the odontogenic apparatus. At the time of writing (2016), it is still the most widely used classification system although a new revision is due to come up in ...
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2014 WHO classification of endometrial stromal tumors

Endometrial stromal tumors (EST) constitute <2% of all uterine tumors and <10% of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms 1.  Over the past four decades, EST classification has gone through various modifications, starting from the earliest study by Norris and Taylor 2. This was primarily due to the rarit...
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2016 Histiocyte Society classification of histiocytoses

The 2016 Histiocyte Society classification of histiocytoses and neoplasms of macrophage-dendritic cell lineages is a proposed revision of the organization's initial classification system from 1987. Terminology Histiocytes are mononuclear phagocytes that reside in tissues, including macrophages...
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5-tier ACR system of radiologic breast findings

The 5-tier ACR system was a previously used system for classification of radiologic breast findings, proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR). It is no longer in widespread use, having been gradually superseded by the 6-tier BI-RADS classification system first published in 1992.  5: ...
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AAST injury scoring scales

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) injury scoring scales are the most widely accepted and used system of classifying and categorizing traumatic injuries. Injury grade reflects severity, guides management, and aids in prognosis. Currently (early 2019), 32 different injury s...
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AAST kidney injury scale

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury scale, most recently updated in 2018, is the most widely used grading system for renal trauma. The 2018 update incorporates "vascular injury" (i.e. pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula) into the imaging criteria for viscera...
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AAST liver injury scale

The AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma) liver injury scale, most recently revised in 2018, is the most widely used liver injury grading system 3. The 2018 update incorporates "vascular injury" (i.e. pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula) into the imaging criteria for visceral ...
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AAST spleen injury scale

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) splenic injury scale, most recently revised in 2018, is currently the most widely used grading system for splenic trauma. The 2018 update incorporates "vascular injury" (i.e. pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula) into the imaging criter...
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ABC/2

ABC/2 is a fast and simple method for estimating the volume of intracerebral hemorrhage (or any other ellipsoid lesion for that matter) which does not require volumetric 3D analysis or software. Intracerebral hemorrhage volume is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality (and thus trial ...
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Abdominal hernia

Abdominal hernias (herniae also used) may be congenital or acquired and come with varying eponyms. They are distinguished primarily based on location and content. 75-80% of all hernias are inguinal. Content of the hernia is variable, and may include: small bowel loops mobile colon segments (s...
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Achondrogenesis 1A

Achondrogenesis type Ia, also known as the Houston-Harris subtype, is a subtype of achondrogenesis. It is an extremely rare lethal skeletal dysplasia (chondrodysplasia) with a characteristic severe disarrangement of endochondral ossification. Clinical presentation Some of the common clinical f...
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ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS)

ACR TI-RADS is a reporting system for thyroid nodules on ultrasound proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) 1. This uses a standardized scoring system for reports providing users with recommendations for when to use fine needle aspiration (FNA) or ultrasound follow-up of suspicious ...
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Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) unstable an...
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Agatston score

Agatston score is a semi-automated tool to calculate a score based on the extent of coronary artery calcification detected by an unenhanced low-dose CT scan, which is routinely performed in patients undergoing cardiac CT. Due to an extensive body of research, it allows for an early risk stratifi...
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Ahlbäck classification of osteoarthritis of the knee joint

This classification was proposed by Ahlback et al. in 1968. According to Ahlbäck system, knee joint osteoarthritis is classified as: grade 1: joint space narrowing (less than 3 mm) grade 2: joint space obliteration grade 3: minor bone attrition (0-5 mm) grade 4: moderate bone attrition (5-1...
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Alberta stroke program early CT score (ASPECTS)

The Alberta stroke programme early CT score (ASPECTS) 1 is a 10-point quantitative topographic CT scan score used in patients with middle cerebral artery stroke. It has also been adapted for the posterior circulation (see below).  Scoring system Segmental assessment of the MCA vascular territo...
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Allen and Ferguson classification of subaxial cervical spine injuries

Allen and Ferguson classification is used for research purposes to classify subaxial spine injuries. It is based ofn the mechanism of injury and position of the neck during injury. This classification was proposed by Allen and Ferguson in 19823 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the ...
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American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures

The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures divides the femur into three separate regions: level I: proximal femur distally to the lower extent of the lesser trochanter  level II: 10 cm of femur distal to level I  level III: femur distal to level...
Article

American Dental Association Universal Numbering System

The American Dental Association Universal Numbering System is a tooth notation system primarily used in the United States. Teeth are numbered from the viewpoint of the dental practitioner looking into the open mouth, clockwise starting from the distalmost right maxillary teeth. Permanent teeth...
Article

Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC

The Amsterdam criteria are used in the diagnosis hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Amsterdam Criteria I Initial description in 1991: > or equal to 3 relatives with colorectal cancer (CRC) > or equal to 1 case in a first degree relative > or equal to 2 successive generation...
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Anderson and D'Alonzo classification of odontoid process fracture

The Anderson and D'Alonzo classification is the most commonly used classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2. Classification type I rare fracture of the upper part of the odontoid peg above the level of the transverse band of the cruciform ligament usually considered stable...
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Ankle fractures

Ankle fractures account for ~10% of fractures encountered in trauma, preceded only in incidence by proximal femoral fractures in the lower limb. They have a bimodal presentation, involving young males and older females. Ankle injuries play a major part in post multitrauma functional impairment t...
Article

Ann Arbor staging system

The Ann Arbor staging system is the landmark lymphoma staging classification system for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  It is named after the town of Ann Arbor in the US state of Michigan where the Committee on Hodgkin's Disease Staging Classification met in 1971 to agree on it...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fracture or tibial eminence avulsion fracture is a type of avulsion fracture of the knee. This typically involves separation of the tibial attachment of the ACL to variable degrees. Separation at the femoral attachment is rare 5. Epidemiology It is mor...
Article

AO classification of proximal humeral fractures

The AO classification of proximal humeral fractures, along with the Neer classification, is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying proximal humeral fractures.  The AO classification divides proximal humeral fractures into three groups, A, B and C, each with subgroups, and place...
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AO classification of sacral injuries

The AO classification of sacral injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying sacral injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. The AO sacral classification is broken into three subsections that follow a hierarchical structure similar to the AO cla...
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AO classification of subaxial injuries

The AO classification of subaxial injuries aims to simplify and universalise the classification of subaxial cervical spine fractures and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. The AO subaxial cervical spine injury classification involves four criteria based on morphology, facet in...
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AO classification of thoracolumbar injuries

The AO classification of thoracolumbar injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying spinal injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability 3. The AOSpine thoracolumbar classification system consists of only three classes of thoracolumbar injuries. Unlik...
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AO classification of upper cervical injuries

The AO classification of upper cervical injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying upper cervical injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Injuries are based on location specific patterns and divided into: type 1: occipital condyle and occipi...
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AO Spine classification systems

The AO Spine classification systems is a group of imaging morphology-based classification system, combined with clinical factors for injury of spinal trauma. It is designed to be a simple and reproducible method of describing injury patterns. At the time of writing (Oct 2018), the 4 published c...
Article

APACHE score

The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) score is a illness severity score commonly used in critical care medicine to predict mortality upon admission to an intensive care unit.  Criteria It involves two sections - one assessing the severity of the acute illness and another ...
Article

Apgar score

Apgar score was originally described by Virginia Apgar (American anaesthesiologist, 1909-1974) in 1952. Helpfully, her surname is also a useful mnemonic for remembering the 5 factors: each is graded as 0, 1 or 2 with a total possible score of 10. The lower the score the worse the prognosis. Th...
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Arnold-Hilgartner classification of haemophilic arthropathy

Arnold-Hilgartner classification is a plain radiograph grading system for haemophilic arthropathy of the knee 1,2: stage 0: normal joint stage I: no skeletal abnormalities, soft-tissue swelling is present stage II: osteoporosis and overgrowth of the epiphysis, no cysts, no narrowing of the ca...
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy diagnostic criteria

For the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) to be made, patients must have either two major criteria, one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria. Major criteria global or regional dysfunction and structural alterations: severe dilatation of the ri...
Article

Artificial Intelligence (AI) TI-RADS

AI TI-RADS (Artificial Intelligence Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System) is a data-driven analysis and revision of the 2017 ACR TI-RADS 1. Published in May 2019 2, this had the intention of simplifying categorization and improving specificity while maintaining high sensitivity. This system...
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ASAS sacroiliitis classification system

First published in 2009 with a revised consensus in 2016, the Assessment in SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) classification system utilizes imaging features of the sacroiliac joints on MR imaging to assist in characterizing the presence of sacroiliitis. The ASAS classification is ...
Article

ASCOD classification (ischemic stroke)

The ASCOD classification system 1, published in 2013, aims to define phenotypes of ischemic strokes for individual patients by assigning a degree of probability to each of the most common causes of this pathology. It serves most strictly as a research tool, but is also useful clinically as a mn...
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ASIA impairment scale for spinal injury

The American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale was developed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) in 2006, was revised in 2011, and remains the most widely used neurologic classification of spinal cord injury. Classification The scale divides spinal cord injuries into 5 ca...
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Autoimmune pancreatitis (diagnostic criteria)

There are several sets of diagnostic criteria for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), with some overlap and contradictions. At the time of writing (July 2016), these are the most widely used sets of diagnostic criteria. Asian 2008 AIP diagnostic criteria both criteria I to be fulfilled one criter...
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Bado classification of Monteggia fracture-dislocations

The Bado classification is one of the more widely used classifications for Monteggia fracture-dislocations and mainly focuses on the radial component. Four types are recognized and are generally based on the principle that the direction in which the apex of the ulnar fracture points is the same ...
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Bähren classification of left varicoceles

Bähren classification of left varicoceles: type 0: no evidence of venous reflux in internal spermatic vein (ISV) type I: single ISV with insufficient or absent valve type II: single ISV with ≥ 2 ostia to renal vein; may be branches to ascending lumbar/retroperitoneal veins IIa: insufficient ...
Article

Bailey classification of second branchial cleft cysts

This classification was initially proposed by Bailey in 1929 2 and remains the most widely used classification system at time of writing (July 2016). Bailey classification of second branchial cleft cysts provides a structure for classing second branchial cleft cysts into four types. It is no lo...
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Balthazar score

The Balthazar score is a subscore within the CT severity index (CTSI) for grading of acute pancreatitis.  The CTSI sums two scores: Balthazar score: grading of pancreatitis (A-E) grading the extent of pancreatic necrosis The Balthazar score was originally used alone, but the addition of a sc...
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Barkovich classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Barkovich classifies focal cortical dysplasias among the his extensive classification system for malformations of cortical development, distributing them as follows: Type I and type IIb (transcortical dysplasia - Taylor type with balloon cells) as non-neoplastic malformations due to abnormal ne...
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Barrow classification of caroticocavernous fistulae

Barrow caroticocavernous fistula classification divides caroticocavernous fistulas into direct (type A) or indirect (types B-D). This classification was proposed by Barrow et al. in 1985 1 and at the time of writing (mid 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing caroticocavernous ...
Article

Bent bone dysplasias (differential)

Bent bone dysplasias are a class of dysplasia included in a 2010 classification of genetic skeletal disorders 1. campomelic dysplasia Stuve-Weidemann dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias, a diverse class, including congenital bowing of the long bones cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH; metaphyseal d...
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Berndt and Harty classification

Berndt and Harty classification is used for osteochondral lesions of the talus. Classification stage I: subchondral bone compression (marrow edema) stage II stage IIa: subchondral cyst stage IIb: incomplete separation of fragment stage III: complete separation but no displacement stage IV...
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Bethesda criteria of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

The Bethesda criteria are an alternative to the Amsterdam criteria for the clinical diagnosis of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).  Diagnosis of HNPCC is made if any of the following criteria are fulfilled: Amsterdam criteria are met 2 or more HNPCC related malignancies  pa...
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Biffl scale for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Biffl scale or grade illustrates the spectrum of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) seen on angiography (both CTA and DSA). Some authors refer to the grading scale as the Denver scale, which is not to be confused with the Denver criteria, a series of clinical indications and risk factors fo...
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BI-RADS 0

BI-RADS 0 is one of six categories from the breast imaging reporting and data system and is used when imaging is incomplete such as: when further imaging or information is required, e.g. compression, magnification, special mammographic views, ultrasound when requesting previous images not avai...
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BI-RADS 1

A BI-RADS 1 category under the breast imaging reporting and data system is when no finding is present in an imaging modality (not even a benign finding).
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BI-RADS 2

BI-RADS 2 is a benign category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. A finding placed in this category should have essentially a 100% chance of being benign.  Examples of such lesions include: calcified fibroadenomas multiple secretory calcifications fat-containing lesions such as...
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BI-RADS 3

BI-RADS 3 is an intermediate category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. A finding placed in this category is considered probably benign, with a risk of malignancy between 0% and 2%. Terminology BI-RADS 3 should not be utilized in the screening setting. It should be reserved for ...
Article

BI-RADS 4

A BI-RADS 4 lesion under the breast imaging reporting and data system refers to a suspicious abnormality. BI-RADS 4 lesions may not have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer but have a definite probability of being malignant. A biopsy is recommended for these lesions. If possible, the ...
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BI-RADS 5

BI-RADS 5 lesions under the BI-RADS (breast imaging reporting and data system) refer to breast lesions that are highly suspicious for malignancy, requiring appropriate action to be taken (i.e. biopsy and management as appropriate). BI-RADS 5 lesions have the characteristic morphology of breast c...
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BI-RADS 6

BI-RADS 6 is an assessment category of the ACR (American College of Radiology) BI-RADS system. Patients with biopsy-proven cancer prior to definitive therapy would be category 6.
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Bismuth-Corlette classification

The Bismuth-Corlette classification is a classification system for perihilar cholangiocarcinomas, which is based on the extent of ductal infiltration.   Classification type I limited to the common hepatic duct, below the level of the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts type II in...
Article

Bladder impairment following spinal cord injury

A commonly used classification scheme used by urologists and rehabilitation specialists, described by Wein, classifies bladder impairment following spinal cord injury according to the level of injury: suprasacral (infrapontine) bladder - upper motor neuron lesion, releasing the sacral micturiti...
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Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Blumcke et al. proposed the most recent (2011) 2 and now widely adopted consensus classification system for focal cortical dysplasia, which shares many features with the previously described classifications system by Palmini (2004) and Barkovich (2005).  Unfortunately, as is the case with many ...
Article

Bolger classification of maxillary sinus hypoplasia

The Bolger classification of maxillary sinus hypoplasia proposed by Bolger et al. in 1990 1 takes into account associated anomalies of the uncinate process, which are of utmost importance for planning functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Maxillary sinus hypoplasia in itself is asymptomat...
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Bone tumors

There are a bewildering number of bone tumors with a wide variety of radiological appearances: bone-forming tumors osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma osteoma osteosarcoma cartilage-forming tumors enchondroma enchondromatosis-Ollier disease Maffucci syndrome osteochondroma: hereditary multi...
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Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas

The Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) groups these lesions into three types based upon the site of venous drainage and the presence or absence of cortical venous drainage. It was first proposed in 1995 1. At the time of writing (July 2016), it is probably less popular ...
Article

Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses

The Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses divides renal cystic masses into five categories based on imaging characteristics on contrast-enhanced CT. It is helpful in predicting a risk of malignancy and suggesting either follow up or treatment. Classification Bosniak I simple cy...
Article

Bouthillier classification of internal carotid artery segments

Bouthillier et al. described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid-2016). There are a few other classifications systems including those proposed by Fisher (1...
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Boyden classification of bronchi

The Boyden classification of bronchi refers to the standard nomenclature used to describe bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy. Each lung has 10 segments, however on the left, the first two segments share a common trunk and are hence B1/2. Also given the shared trunk on the left of the lower lobe...
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Brachydactyly type A1 (Farabee type)

Brachydactyly type A1 or Farabee type brachydactyly is a subtype of brachydactyly. It was the first human anomaly recognized to have a mendelian pattern of inheritance. The anomaly is characterized by hypoplasia or aplasia of middle phalanges of the second to fifth digits in hands and feet and p...
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Brachydactyly type A2 (Mohr-Wriedt type)

Brachydactyly type A2 or Mohr-Wriedt type is characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of the second middle phalanx of the index finger, second toe and sometimes little finger. There is radial deviation of the index finger and tibial deviation of the second toe. Pathology Type A2 brachydactyly can b...
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Brachydactyly type A3

Brachydactyly type A3 is characterized by shortening of the middle phalanx of the little finger with radial deviation of distal phalanx. Slanting of the distal articular surface of the middle phalanx leads to radial deflection of the distal phalanx. However it is not always associated with clino...
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Brachydactyly type A4 (Temtamy type)

Brachydactyly type A4 or Temtamy type is characterized by brachymesophalangy (absent or hypoplastic middle phalanx) of the second and fifth fingers. Other less common features include club foot, clinodactyly, ulnar deviation of the second finger. Pathology Like other brachydactyly, type A4 is ...
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Brachydactyly type A5

Brachydactyly type A5 is characterized by absence of the middle phalanges and nail dysplasia with duplicated terminal phalanx of the thumb with resultant bifid thumb. Inheritance is suggested as autosomal dominant.  
Article

Brainstem stroke syndromes

Brainstem stroke syndromes, also known as crossed brainstem syndromes, refer to a group of syndromes that occur secondary to lesions, most commonly infarcts, of the brainstem. Epidemiology Although many different brainstem stroke syndromes have been classically described, the majority appear e...
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Brasfield scoring system

The Brasfield scoring system is a scoring system for patients with cystic fibrosis. The score is based on conventional chest radiographic findings and has been reported to have good correlation with pulmonary function. There can be intra- and interobserver variability between radiologists. Ther...
Article

Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS)

BI-RADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) is a risk assessment and quality assurance tool developed by American College of Radiology that provides a widely accepted lexicon and reporting schema for imaging of the breast. It applies to mammography, ultrasound, and MRI. This article refle...
Article

British Athletics muscle injury classification

The British Athletics muscle injury classification is a five-point MRI-based system that is based on extent and site. It has been primarily based on hamstring injuries but is used in other muscle injuries. The classification system has been shown to have moderate inter- and intra-rater agreeabil...
Article

BTA ultrasound "U" classification of thyroid nodules

The ultrasound "U" classification of thyroid nodules has been developed by the British Thyroid Association (BTA) as part of their 2014 guidelines on the management of thyroid cancer 1. It allows for stratifying thyroid nodules as benign, suspicious or malignant based on ultrasound appearances t...
Article

Callen MS-ADEM criteria

The Callen MS-ADEM criteria can be useful in differentiating between acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS) in children, as the first attack of immune-mediated demyelination is a frequent diagnostic challenge. Given the diagnostic challenge, several diagnostic c...
Article

Capsulolabral insertion classification

There is variation in the relationship between the glenoid labrum and the anterior shoulder joint capsule. This has been divided into three types: Type 1: capsule inserts into the labrum proper Type 2: capsule inserts into the base of the labrum, or within 1 cm of the base Type 3: capsule ins...
Article

Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction" 1. It has been classified according to several systems: 1995 WHO/ISFC cardiomyopathy classification system Elliott et al. classification system: published by the European Society of Cardiology Workin...
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Cardiomyopathy (WHO/ISFC 1995 classification)

Cardiomyopathy classification separates the various cardiomyopathies into several subtypes. Cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction". It was initially classified according to the 1995 World Health Organization / International Society and Fed...
Article

Carpentier classification of mitral valve regurgitation

The Carpentier classification divides mitral valve regurgitation into three types based on leaflet motion 1: type I: normal leaflet motion annular dilation, leaflet perforation regurgitation jet directed centrally type II: excessive leaflet motion papillary muscle rupture, chordal rupture, ...
Article

Castellvi classification of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae

The Castellvi classification is used for lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV): type I: enlarged and dysplastic transverse process (at least 19 mm) Ia: unilateral Ib: bilateral type II: pseudoarticulation of the transverse process and sacrum with incomplete lumbarisation/sacralisation; en...
Article

Catterall classification of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

The Catterall classification is based on radiographic appearances of the epiphysis and metaphysis visible in osteonecrosis of the femoral head: stage I bone absorption changes visible in the anterior aspect of the epiphysis of femoral head changes are visible best in frog leg lateral view no...
Article

Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC) or lines (CVL) refer to a wide range of central venous access devices but can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by medical, surgical, anesthetic/ITU, or radiology specialists. Classification peripherally inserted central catheters (PIC...
Article

Cervical degenerative spondylosis (grading)

Cervical degenerative disease can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine. The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
Article

Cervical spine fracture classification systems

There are several cervical spine fracture classification systems: Anderson and D'Alonzo classification (odontoid fracture) Roy-Camille classification (odontoid fracture) Levine and Edwards classification (for traumatic injuries to axis) Allen and Ferguson classification (subaxial spine injur...
Article

Child-Pugh score

The Child-Pugh score is a scoring system to measure the severity of chronic liver disease inclusive of cirrhosis. The intention is to provide a system with which clinicians can objectively communicate about liver function. The score is composed from several categories: total bilirubin, μmol/l ...
Article

Choi response criteria

Use only the size of the tumor during evaluation of response to chemotherapy has some pitfalls and limitations, especially when the estimated response for specific tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The Choi response criteria for GIST proposed that tumor attenuation could pro...
Article

Chrispin-Norman scoring system for cystic fibrosis

The Chrispin-Norman score is used to provide a summative assessment of structural lung changes in patients with cystic fibrosis on plain chest radiographs. It is useful to monitor disease progression or treatment response and can be used to compare between different patients in research studies...
Article

Chronic suppurative lung disease

Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) refers to a group of conditions which includes: cystic fibrosis  bronchiectasis primary ciliary dyskinesia This term is usually used in the context of pediatric patients.
Article

Ciliopathies

Ciliopathies refer to diseases due to malfunctioning cilia (singular: cilium). Cilia are organelles that are external extensions of the cell membrane. Cilia fall into two main types: primary (or immotile) cilia and motile cilia.  Clinical presentation Primary cilia are found in virtually every...
Article

Classification of cerebral vascular malformations

Cerebral vascular malformations encompass a large variety vascular lesions which differ in hemodynamics, structure and prognosis. Some can be life threatening (e.g. vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations, arteriovenous malformations) whilst others are almost always incidental and asymptomatic (e...
Article

Classification of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

The new pathological classification of DCIS is based on cytonuclear atypia, degree of necrosis, size, and distance from margin/architecture. Low and intermediate grades DCIS require cytologic, architectural and size criteria to be met but high-grade DCIS requires only cytologic criteria; this is...

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